Math-Physical Medicine

NO. 046

Comparison Between FPG & PPG Waveforms Using Wave Theory and Energy Theory (GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine)

Corresponding Author: Gerald C. Hsu, eclaireMD Foundation, USA.

This paper discusses the different waveforms between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) from the viewpoints of wave theory and energy theory.

The author has collected 17,046 glucose data by applying a sensor on his upper arm to collect his glucose values continuously, in parallel with his routine finger-piercing and testing strip (Finger) measurements.  For 241 days (5/5/2018 to 12/31/2018), he has recorded his sensor values ~71 times per day, approximately every 15 minutes during the day and every hour during the night.  Other waveforms generated outside the normal range of PPG (180 minutes) are not included in this analysis.

Initially, among these collected 964 waveforms, he synthesized 241 FPG waves into one generalized FPG waveform, and 723 PPG waves into another generalized waveform.  He then studied these waves’ characteristics, such as frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude by using wave theory from electronic engineering and geophysics.  He further calculated their associated energy (in particular, the amount of differential energy, not absolute value if energy) using energy theory from mechanical and structural engineering.  The purpose is to identify some effective ways to control these waves, especially PPG, in order to reduce the damage on human internal organs caused by the complications from diabetes.

FPG waveform shapes are similar to ocean waves which have mild ups and downs generated by gravitational forces from the sun, moon, and earth. On the contrary, PPG waveform shapes are similar to tsunami waves which have violent behaviors produced by strong earthquakes.

Generalized FPG waveform covers a period of seven hours (00:00 – 07:00).

  • FPG’s key data are:
    Maximum: 122 mg/dL,
    Minimum: 106 mg/dL,
    Trough period: from 3am to 5am
    Average FPG: 112 mg/dL
  • PPG’s key data are:
    Maximum: 144 mg/dL,
    Minimum: 127 mg/dL,
    Crest timing:
    60 minutes after first-bite
    Average PPG: 136 mg/dL


  1. PPG is more critical to hemoglobin A1C contribution (~ 79% to 80%) and its crest is 21% higher than FPG.
  2. Both FPG and PPG are results of energy imbalance.  FPG is related more to body weight (quantity of food intake), while PPG is related more to carbs/sugar intake (quality of food intake) and post-meal exercise.
  3. By maintaining energy balance and keeping both glucose peaks and its associated energy low, this will reduce damage of internal organs and the risk probability of type 2 diabetes complications, such as CVD and stroke.
Figure: Comparison of FPG and PPG waveforms